May 21-23, 2019 - Anaheim, CA

Advances from Universities

May 21 2019
11:30 am - 12:30 pm

Advances from Universities

Track Names: SPAR 3D, Tuesday, May 21
Session Date: May 21 2019 11:30 am - 12:30 pm

Digital Construction of Concrete: An Ongoing Exploration on Design and Development of Printable Mixture and Printing Process

Additive manufacturing (AM) or 3D printing has advanced manufacturing process such that any desired 3D shapes and structures can be created by printing successive layers of material based on a digitally sliced model. In construction field, engineers and architects can significantly benefit from AM in production of fast, cheap, and complex architectural models. AM allows a freeform architecture with higher precision, safer working condition, faster construction speed, and lower costs of construction. Over the past few years, several remarkable advancements have been made in 3D printing of concrete. However, challenges related to AM of concrete slow down the 3D printing applications in the construction industry. These limitation include problems in printing process because of the issue of scaling up, adjusting the fresh properties of concrete, formation of cold joint between different layers, finishing the final surface of the printed-concrete objects, and use of reinforcement and fibers. Considering these challenges, 3D printing will not be expected to be an effective replacement for conventional or prefabricated construction in the very near future. While 3D printing of concrete is not intended and expected to replace conventional site cast or prefabricated construction, the many advantageous attributes of this technology make it uniquely qualified for certain applications where conventional reinforced concrete would not be feasible. This is particularly the case where indigenous material must be used in hard-to-reach or contaminated sites on earth or future planetary habitat construction. Designing a printable concrete, and characterizing the time-dependent rheological properties of printable mixture are the essential parts in digital construction of concrete, which still needs significant progress in troubleshooting before the process can be commercialized and moved forward into a real-scale practice. In the initial phases of the study to be presented, some printable cement and cement-free mixtures were designed and their the properties adapted for printing, followed by measurement of the mechanical properties of the lab-scale printed objects. More specifically, the research reported in this presentation builds on the experienced gained by the authors in 3D printing of innovative construction materials (including cement, cement-free, and functionally-graded materials). In particular, the presentation includes the results of accurately characterizing the material and precisely formulating and engineering the toolpath to make a predictable model for printing different the . Penn State University started an interdisciplinary research on digital construction of concrete structures in 2016. This project studies developing the 3D printing machine consisting of a robot arm and pump-driven printer, designing and developing printable (either cement or cement free) concrete, and designing a toolpath and controlling printing process. One of the successful achievements done by this team was achieving the second place award in NASA Centennial Challenge of 3D-Printed Habitat on Mars.


Maryam Hojati

Pennsylvania State University

Challenging Constructions with Additive Manufacturing

Decade, the diffusion of 3D printing has allowed architects and engineers to imagine and develop constructions that can be produced additively. However, questions about the convenience of using this technology, and whether additive large scale constructions can be feasible, efficient and sustainable are still open. In this research 3D Printing is considered not as a question, but as an answer to the increasing scarcity of material resources for constructions. This presentation shows the overarching process from concept to construction of a number of research projects at large scale entirely designed and optimized for 3D Printing, using Fused Deposition Modelling (FDM) - one of the most cost-effective additive techniques of production.


Roberto Naboni

University Of Southern Denmark (SDU)

Faster building permits and inspections? Try software for self-certification

Compliance with building codes is seen by many constituents as a necessary but odious and time-consuming process. Although few could argue against the intentions of protecting the safety and welfare of the public during construction and occupancy, delays due to backlogs, corrections, and revisions can cost thousands and millions of dollars on each project. With emerging computer tools that automatically check building designs against code requirements, a new pattern of self-certification promises to overcome bottlenecks, improve compliance, and save money. This presentation will present three examples of self-certification aided by software: IC3 (International Code Compliance Calculator) for compliance with the International Energy Conservation Code, SMARTreview APR for compliance with the International Building Code, and BIMCheck, a research project for construction inspection using BIM, robots and drones. IC3, developed by the Energy Systems Laboratory at Texas A&M University, is widely used to analyze a residential project for compliance with the IECC. IC3 relies upon simulation of the performance of a home design and compares it to a reference design that is minimally compliant with the IECC and amendments for the state of Texas. A designer can use the tool in the design stage to adjust thermal characteristics, shading, and equipment to reach a target energy usage. Once compliance is reached, the user can print a certificate that is accepted by the building department of the Authority Having Jurisdiction to document compliance. The software has nearly 600 users who produce nearly 80,000 certificates annually. APR is a new product by SMARTreview Inc. that checks a Building Information Model against provisions of the building code. It checks chapters 5 through 10 of the IBC. It checks building size, fire ratings of assemblies, fire protection systems, and egress provisions. The software is relatively new and has only a small number of users. BIMCheck is a research project in very early stages. The motive is the observation that building inspection can often lead to delays, especially when a community is recovering from a major disaster. Inspection by a video equipped robot or drone can match the image of reality against an image generated from a BIM. Applications in lightweight framing, electrical, plumbing, and other residential inspections are the subjects of first experiments. Rejigging code compliance processes to use automation and self-certification democratizes the permitting process and empowers the participants. The value of a self-certification approach accrues to all architects and designers, contractors, compliance officers, municipalities, and the general public.


Mark Clayton

Texas A&M University

Results of An AEC Supply Chain Optimization Study: Supporting A PrefaBIM Process

This presentation re-introduces and further explores the impacts of Building Information Modeling workflows on site-wide labor time utilization during the pre-construction phase of a semi-conductor capital improvement project. The research undertaken looks specifically at BIM use for off-site prefabrication of process piping, mechanical, and electrical components, and presents a scalable, ideal state workflow for enhanced content management and information handoffs for improved Project team and site-wide productivity. Following the development of this ideal state workflow, namely prefabBIM, a Pilot Study was engaged to measure and compare the resulting labor time utilization levels before and after the implementation of BIM process changes related to schedule duration and the sole use of laser scans for the modeling of prefabricated components. A discussion around the resulting comparison data will validate the prefaBIM workflow and introduce the ideas of dynamic scheduling and separation of BIM geometrical data for improved labor time utilization on job sites.


John Cribbs

Wentworth Institute Of Technology

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